Frank Ritter
512 Rider Bld
University Park
8654453
School of IST
ritter@ist.psu.edu
Office hours: M 34, W 45 pm 512 Rider, and by appointment
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Please note, this is a live document. Changes announced in class and on the list server will be incorporated from time to time. Announcements in class and their mirror here are the definative version.
Introduction to formal languages, mathematical logic, and discrete mathematics, with applications to information sciences and technology. The course will consist of a number of modules, each introducing a group of mathematical concepts and presenting applications of those concepts to problems of information storage, information retrieval, information management, etc. in both computers and humans.
IST 230 is one of the five introductory core courses for the Baccalaureate degree program in Information Sciences and Technology. The purpose of IST 230 is to provide students with an understanding of an array of mathematical concepts and methods that form the foundation of modern information science, in a form that will be relevant and useful for IST students. Exams and assignments will be used to assess that understanding.
IST 230 will draw some of its material from several mathematical disciplines: formal language theory, mathematical logic, and discrete mathematics. Indepth treatments of each of these subjects are offered elsewhere in the University as advanced mathematics and computer science courses. The difference is that IST 230 will present these concepts in a more elementary way than CSE260, with more emphasis on IST applications. Understanding of these concepts will be tested through assignments and examinations.
IST 230 can be viewed as a small number of modules. Each module will introduce a group of mathematical concepts and present applications of those concepts to problems of information storage, information retrieval, information management, in both humans and machines. These include: Module 1: induction and recursion; Module 2: set, relations, functions, numbers; Module 3: graphs and trees; Module 4: logic and boolean algebra; Module 5: combinatorics and probability; Module 6:grammars, languages and finite state. These vary slightly from the text, which we will follow for convenience.
We will explore these topics through inclass presentations, homework sets, discussions, readings (from both text and online sources), exercises (done in groups assigned the first week), and exams.
At the conclusion of this course, students will be able to:
Note to students with disabilities: It is Penn State's policy to not discriminate against qualified students with documented disabilities in its educational programs. If you have a disabilityrelated need for modifications in your testing situation, your instructor should be notified during the first week of classes so that your needs can be accommodated. You will be asked to present documentation from the Office of Disability Services (located in 105 Boucke Building) that describes the nature of your disability and the recommended remedy. You may refer to the Nondiscrimination Policy in the Student Guide to University Policies and Rules 1999.
Americans with Disabilities Act: The School of Information Sciences and Technology (IST) welcomes persons with disabilities to all of its classes, programs, and events. If you need accommodations, or have questions about access to buildings where IST activities are held, please contact the Dean's Office (814) 8653528 in advance of your participation or visit. If you need assistance during a class, program, or event, please contact any member of our staff or faculty in charge.
Teaching Staff and Structure. Dr. Frank Ritter is the course coordinator. There are also a teaching assistant (TA). The TA for our section is Dr. David Mudgett (email: drm1@psu.edu, phone 8654455).
The IST 230 Web Site. This course has an active web page that contains the syllabus, assignments, links to useful sites, and other valuable material (such as how to correctly prepare assignments, citations templates, and other academic and recreational information). We will post latebreaking information and updates to the web page. This page can currently be found at uniform resource locator (URL) ritter.ist.psu.edu/ist230, and later will be available through links from the IST home page via course listings.
The IST 230 Listserv. Each section has a mandatory listserv that we will use to post course and class information, conduct online discussions, and share information.
If you are in Section1 you need to subscribe to list2301@lists.psu.edu.
Instructions on how to subscribe are available at cac.psu.edu/~santoro/110sp00/conf.htm. Please note that (a) you must use your PSU account, and (b) the web server accepting confirmations is sometimes down. If the server is down, read the email and use the reply option to confirm your subscription. This appears to always work. (c) The instructions are for IST110. Replace 230 for 110 where appropriate!
(W) Discrete mathematical structures, Kolman, Busby, & Ross (2000). PrenticeHall, ISBN 0130831433
Papers and online references will be available as supplements. List of errata
Previously unreported mistakes in the text are worth 0.1 points (out of 2 or 3 on a homework). Reports must come via email.
Forum for Advancing Software engineering Education Wolfram Research seems to have a nice online library
http://www.counterpane.com A newsletter on cryptography that illustrates math occasionally.
Grimaldi, Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics, is another, longer, more detailed textbook. The library has returned my copy and has replaced it with 2 copies available in Patee reference. IST230 books in reference library
Maxfield, Clive. Bebop to the Boolean Boogie, An Unconventional Guide to Electronics Fundamentals, Components & Processes.Ê TK7868.D5M323 1995.
Student's solutions manual to accompany Discrete Mathematics, Sherwood Ê Washburn, Thomas Marlowe, Charles Ryan. / Paul Lorczak ; solutions to Ê computer exercises provided by Atanas Rountev and Matthew Arnold. Reading, Ê Mass., AddisonWesley, 2000.ÊCall#: QA39.2.W369 2000 ÊÊÊ 4th Floor Paterno QA39.2.W369 2000 4th Floor Paterno Ê Now in Reserve Reading Room. 2 Available. ISBN  0201619253
The Washburn book should appear in the library as well.
According to the University Advising Handbook: "Academic integrity is the pursuit of scholarly activity free from fraud and deception, and is the educational objective of this institution. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to cheating, plagiarism, fabrication of information or citations, facilitating acts of academic dishonesty by others, unauthorized possession of examinations, submitting work of another person, or work previously used without informing the instructor, or tampering with the academic work of other students. Any violation of academic integrity will be thoroughly investigated, and where warranted, punitive action will be taken." Students should be aware that standards for documentation and intellectual contribution may depend on the course content and method of teaching, and should consult instructors for guidance.
In this course, academic integrety needs two explanations. The first is that you are expected to contribute to your group. This means making time in your schedule for the group's meetings, being in touch via email, and preparing for those meetings. The second explanation is that your group's homework set is to be done only by your group. This means that while you can discuss the problems with others, and we agree that this is a good thing, the writing up needs to be solely by your group. If you have a question as to whether or not two homework writeups are too similar, then use the following standard:
By all means, talk to your colleagues, get help if necessary, but prove to us that, in the end, you understand what you are doing, and can and must express it in your own words. If you and your group don't understand the material well enough to write it up on your own, and you need to copy, then four things are lost: Your integrety, useful feedback to us on how you are doing, your ability to perform well on the exam, and ultimately, your knowledge.
Similarly, if your group splits up the work, and turns in accidentally multiple copies of the same problem, they will not be graded. This is not the intent of the group work. Your group should discuss the answers and choose the best. At the least you should choose sets that do not overlap, see section 1.2 of the book for details.
Learning Disabilities
As each student is an individual with specific needs, academic accommodations are provided on an individual basis based on the student's documentation. A reasonable accommodation is a modification or adjustment to a course, program, service, job, activity, or facility that provides the qualified individual with a disability to have an equal opportunity. An equal opportunity provides the means to attain the same level of performance or to enjoy benefits that are available to students without disabilities. For more information about services for individuals with learning disabilities, please contact the Office for Disability Services at (814) 8631807.
You earn your grade but it will be assigned by me. The criteria for each assignment will be discussed in detail, as will the grading scheme. Each written assignment will be evaluated on how well it addresses the questions posed, the clarity of thinking, the organization and presentation of the material, the quality of writing, and its timeliness.
Your grade will be based on 100 possible points. You earn points with each assignment (see below). As a maximum scale (i.e., cutoffs may be lowered): A: 10074, A: 7370, B+ 69 67, B: 66 64, B: 63 60, C+: 59 57, C: 56 50, D: 49 40, F: 39 0.
There are written assignments, two in class midterms,
and a final exam. Please consult the schedule to see when papers/ assignments
are due and exams scheduled. You will receive more written instructions for
each assignment well in advance of the due date. Here is a brief summary of
each:
Assignment 
Weight 

Due Date 
5% (option with homework) 
Once during the semester your group may find an additional resource that addresses or relies upon topics covered that week in class. In one page or less, you will comment on how that article relates to the current class discussion/ topic. You will share both the article and your comments with the class. 
Once, varies by group 

Homework sets 
25% 
You will do a varietyof homework sets. Each set nominally 3 points, with maximum contribution to the final grade allowed of 25%. They are finalised the week prior to their due date. 
Fridays 
MidTerm Exam 1 Example Probs from HW4 
25% 
In class 
9 feb 2001 
MidTerm Exam 2 Example Probs from HW7 
25% 
In class 
28 mar 2001 
Final Examination Example questions from HWK10 
25% 
This will be a comprehensive examination that incorporates both new and old material. 
May 2001 

100% 



Date 
Focus 
In Class 
Read/Prepare 
Due 

1* 
8/Jan/01 
Introduction, start of initial exercise 
Course overview, Introductions big factorial problem 
nil 

2* 
10/Jan/01 
Logs / H 
Fitts
law, Shannon's H, plots, 
Get on listserver More
on Shannon's H Examples of H wrt Boston
Harbour and 
Survey due at end of day (optional, will help adjust class pace and provides alias for grade postings) 
3* 
12/Jan/01 
Sets, Subsets, Binary strings* 
Kolman 1.1 

4* 
15/Jan/01 
Set Operations  1.2  
5* 
17/Jan/01 
Sequences  1.3  
6*  19/Jan/01 
Mod stuff Integers mod n, examples mod 2, exponentials

Application: UPCs

1.4 
HW1: (ready) Shannon's H (1 point) Book stuff (1 point) p. 5 #14, 18, 26, 28 p. 1112 #10, 14, 23 (show work), 24, 30, 38a 
7* 
22/Jan/01 
Integers, primes, gcd, lcm, Euclidean algorithm, unique factorization, Fermat Factorization* 
Explanation
of Euclidian algorithm 


8* 
24/Jan/01  More on integers  
9* 
26/Jan/01 
Matrices 
1.5 
HWK2 (partially ready) Fitts law (1 point) Sequences: (1 point) Describe the sequence "6798686" Integers: (1 point) compute a multiplication table for mod9 numbers, e.g. 2x2 mod9=4, and Project to do in class. 

10* 
29/Jan/01 
Matrices*  1.6 (may be read on your own) 


11* 
31/Jan/01 
Logic, prepositional calculus, truth
tables software for it * 
2.1, 2.2 


12* 
2/Feb/01 
Proof techniques  2.3 


13* 
5/Feb/01 
Induction* 
Example proof from Leonard  2.4 (Induction) 
HWK3 Example web problem (ready) p. 3738#4,6,8,16 p. 5758#10,12,18,22,28 
14* 
7/Feb/01 
Induction 


15* 
9/Feb/01 
Review/Questions session 
HWK4A (1 point) p. 69#4,8,10,14 

16* 
12/Feb/01 

** In class Midterm Examination on 


17* 
14/Feb/01 
3.1 (permutations)  
18* 
16/Feb/01 
continued 

3.2 (combinations) 

19* 
19/Feb/01 
Pigeonhole principle  3.3 Pigeon hole principle 
HWK4B (2 points) p. 69#2,6,18,22,24 p. 7778#4,6,8,12,16 

20* 
21/Feb/01 
continued (central limit theorem) 
3.4 elements of Prob. 

21* 
23/Feb/01 
Recurence 
Factorial, etc. 
3.5 Recurrence relations 

22* 
26/Feb/01 
Recurence 

HWK5 (3 points) Create a table or a figure that notes how to sort all combination/permutation problems into their type. p. 8182#6,12,14,19 (show work and explain why this is included), 26,28 p. 8586#6,8,10,19 (by inductive proof)


23* 
28/Feb/01 
Functions and Relations, composition of functions, injective, surjective, bijective, equivalence relations 

4.1 product set 

24* 
2/Mar/01 
Graphs, directed, complete 

4.2 relations 

5/7/9/Mar/01 SB 
Spring Break 


25* 
12/Mar/01 
4.3 paths 


26* 
14/Mar/01 
matrix representations 

4.4 Properties 

27* 
16/Mar/01 


5.1 functions 
HKW6 (3 points) p. 94#18 (do both known and unknown birthdays), 30, (35&36). p. 100#10,12 p. 100#16 p. 120121# 18, 26 
28 
19/Mar/01 

Carley's work 
5.2, 5.3 functions for CS 

29 
21/Mar/01 
Karnaugh maps1 and here Boolean algebra, functions, and gates 

6.5 Functions on booleans 

30 
23/Mar/01 
Disjunctive and conjunctive normal forms,production rules 

6.6 Circuits 
HWK7 p. 127128#16,34 p. 168170#14,26 p. 173174#25 (show work, and note why this is a useful problem) p. 179180#4,14,16 p. 229230#14,18 Example web problem (ready) 
31 
26/Mar/01 
Trees  7.1 Trees 


32 
28/Mar/01 
Review  
33 
30/Mar/01 
spanning trees, Breadth first, depth first, traversals of binary trees 

7.2 lableled trees 7.3 Tree searching 
NoHwk week2 
34 
2/Apr/01 

** Class Midterm Examination on 


35 
4/Apr/01 
Network Algorithms, spanning trees, 
Kruskal's algorithm 
7.4 Undirected trees 7.5 Spanning trees 

36 
6/Apr/01 
Petri networks: reading1
reading2

8.1 Graphs 
NoHwk week3 

37 
9/Apr/01 
Application 


38 
11/Apr/01 
Eulerian cycle, circuit, More on Eulerian, Hamiltonian circuit, TS planar graphs 
8.2 Euler graphs 8.3 Hamiltonian 


39 
13/Apr/01 
network flows 
8.4 Transport networks 
HWK8 (4 points) 1. Compare tictactoe and hex pawn. 2. p. 253#16,18 p.262#20, p. 271#18,20 3. Why use different orders of searching trees? Use an example from part 1 and provide a URL from the net of an application that illustrates your point. Include a printout of the URL. 4. p. 275276#4,8,13, 

40 
16/Apr/01 
Language, grammars, regular expressions 
10.1 Languages 

41 
18/Apr/01 
continued 

10.2 BNF  
42 
20/Apr/01 
Pascal’s
Triangle, simple recursion, binomial coefficients 
HWK9 (3 points) p.296#8,10,12,18 p.305#4,6,12 p. 364365#6,9,12 Example web problem (ready) 

43 
23/Apr/01 
Careers/review 



44 
25/Apr/01 

10.3 FSMs 

45  27/Apr/01 
The Future / Review Group 10 report 


HWK10 (2 points) p.374375#12,18,22 draw the FSM for an actual coke machine (give its location) and test your theory 




(Task modelling languages not yet covered) 
Instructor 
Office 
Office Hours 
Phone 


David Mudgett 
ACS Lab near 512 Rider 1 Bld. 
Monday 11 am  1 pm and by appointment 
8654455 
The laboratory/homework portion of IST 230 provides students with the chance to become familiar with using the concepts. It is absolutely essential for understanding the material and will be useful for passing the exams.
You have been put into small groups to do your homework because we believe this generally leads to better learning. That means that you must turn in one homework set per group, that confering within your group is not a violation of academic policy or of ethics on the homework section of this course, and that conferring with other groups *is* a violation of academic policy and ethics.
The best way is to attempt all the homework and then meet to disucss the answers. The worst way is to have each member of the group do (and thus learn) one of the problems.
As we explore these topics, we will also practice skills in working together, analytical skills, and information problemsolving approaches.