Discrete mathematics is a fundamental building block for any program in Information Sciences and Technology. This web site provides a set of online resources for teaching and learning many of the concepts in discrete mathematics, particularly the most fundamental ones.
Topics covered include logic and boolean algebra, elementary number theory, direct proof techniques, sequences and induction, set theory, combinatorics and probability, functions and relations, grammars, languages and finite state machines, graphs, and trees.
The resources include static web pages we link to, some static pages we have built, some simple Java applets to illustate concepts, and some more complex Java applets that we link to.
If you have useful Java applets for teaching concepts in discrete math that you'd like to share, please send them our way. We'll thank you and put them up on this web site.
Please consult the following article for an overview of this site:
Mudgett, D. R., Freed, A. R., & Ritter, F. E. (2002). Webbased resources for teaching discrete mathematics to students
of information sciences and technology. IEEE Learning Technology,
4(3). 910. lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/july2002/index.html#3
Dr. Frank E. Ritter email: ritter{AT}ist.psu.edu
Dr. David R. Mudgett email: dmudgett1{AT}psu.edu
Development of this web site was partially sponsored by the Penn State Fund for Excellence in Learning and Teaching (FELT), project "Javabased Teaching of Mathematics in Information Sciences and Technology", supervised by Frank Ritter and David Mudgett. Andrew R. Freed helped develop it.
Last updated: 14 may 2019
Discrete mathematics with applications. S.S. Epp, (1995), Brooks/Cole, ISBN 0534944469.
This is the text used in Penn State's discrete math course, IST 230. List of errataInformation Technology  Inside and Outside. D. Cyganski, J.A. Orr, R.F. Vaz, (2001), Prentice Hall, ISBN 0130114960 is an interesting book showing many applications of the mathematics in this course. It is available in the Penn State bookstore. Also available online at http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/cyganski/
Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics by R.P. Grimaldi, is another, longer, more detailed textbook.
Bebop to the Boolean Boogie, An Unconventional Guide to Electronics Fundamentals, Components & Processes, by Clive Maxfield, 1995, is an interesting alternative book on how material in this course relates to computers and electronics. Call #TK7868.D5M323 in the PSU Library.
Discrete Mathematical Structures. B. Kolman, R. Busby, S. Ross, 2000, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0130831433.  Also solution manual by S. Ross, and list of errata.
Forum for Advancing Software Engineering Education
Alexander Bogomolny's "Cut the Knot" web page  Lots of interesting math pages.
The Math Forum at Drexel University  Lots of links to math resources in many areas, including discrete math.
https://www.schneier.com  A newsletter on cryptography that illustrates math occasionally.
MathWorld  A nice mathematics site from Wolfram Research.
courses.cs.vt.edu/~csonline/  A nice site at Virginia Tech with useful computer science and math pages.
www.math.psu.edu/MathLists/Contents.html  The Penn State Math Department Search Engine.
web.math.fsu.edu/Science/math.html. The Florida State WWW Mathematics Virtual Library.
Our site, http://acs.ist.psu.edu/discretemath/index.html, including discrete math applets that we have created (These are also linked below)
Also see links in the next section and remember that your search engine can be a very powerful tool to find more mathrelated sites.
Here is an example Syllabus for IST 230 with the resources we have found and created referenced with respect to Epp's book, which we use.
 Here is the link to IST 230 Web Site (but you'll need class username/password to get in.)
Topic(s) 
Section in Epp 
Resource 
Introduction Math review Review of basic college algebra 
 Review of algebra by Eric S. Key at UWMilwaukee  99 = 100? algebra dilemma by Alexander Bogomolny  Bad proof example  Your eyes will deceive you!  The most common errors in college math from Vanderbilt  Andy's Amazing Card Trick 

Logical forms  Epp 1.1 (start)   Truth table constructor by Brian S. Borowski at Seton Hall  Circuit design software by LogicWorks 
Logical Equivalence, DeMorgan's laws, Tautologies and Contradictions 
Epp 1.1 (finish)  Lab 1  Introductory Lab  Introductory lab, equipment checkout  Logic gate demo from realapplets.com 
Conditional statements, Arguments  1.2, 1.3 (partial)  
Quantified statements I  2.1   Negation of quantified statements
from ORNL  Translation tips: How to convert English to predicate logic from Earlham College 
Digital Logic Circuits Lab  Digital logic circuits. 
1.4  Lab 2  Digital Circuits  Logic gates  "How Boolean Logic Works" from 'How Stuff Works' web site.  Digital Logic Circuit Tutorial at www.playhookey.com  Boolean logic game  construct 0 through 15 with boolean logic (from 'Cut the Knot' pages)  The Boolean logic game 
Quantified statements II  2.2  
Quantified statements II  Valid vs. invalid arguments 
2.3  
Number Systems Lab Application  Arithmetic bases, Binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal numbers  modulo arithmetic  some number puzzles. 
1.5  Lab 3  Number Systems  Number Systems Lab Links  Number Systems Lab Notes  Freeware Binary/Octal/Decimal/Hexadecimal Calculators 
Direct proof I Integers, primes, gcd, lcm, Euclidean algorithm, Unique Factorization, Fermat Factorization 
3.1   A 'proof' that 1 = 2  gcd from math.com  lcm from math.com  Euclidean algorithm from wolfram.com 
Direct Proof II  3.2  
Prime Factorization of Integers Lab  Lab 4  Integer Factorization  Integer ZoneApplet by Phillip Dorrell on Integers, Primes, Factorization  Factorization Applet  Big number calculator  A freeware applet to do calculations with numbers of arbitrary size, by Arnold Reinhold at http://world.std.com/~reinhold 

Direct proof III  3.3  
Direct proof IV  3.4   Finding inverses via Extended
Euclidean Algorithm  UPC codes from wolfram.com  Hamming code for data transmission error checking [broken] 
GCD Lab Application  Euclid's GCD Algorithm 
3.8  Lab 5  Euclid's Algorithm  GCD Lab Notes  Some notes on compiling and running Java Programs  The BlueJ Java IDE , A freeware Interactive Development Environment from Monash University in Australia  Euclidean algorithm applet  GCD calculator applet from University of Minnesota 
Sequences  4.1   Hamming and Fibonacci  links to resources [broken to be fixed] 
Induction I  4.2   Example proof from IST student Sean Leonard  Lesson 1 from City University (London)  Lesson 2 from City University (London)  Lesson 3 from City University (London)  Lesson 4 from City University (London)  Example from Seton Hall University 
Induction II  4.24.3  
Induction III  4.3  
Set theory I Sets, Subsets, Binary strings 
5.1   Indiana Set Site: Infinite set discussion from
Earlham College  Basic Set Applet: Simple set theory 
Set Theory II  5.2 + Empty Set (from 5.3)  
Counting and Probability Multiplication rule  6.1 + Motivation and Basic Ideas, 6.2   random.org: True random number generator  Noentropy.net: Nonrandom number generator [insert '1' here]  Central limit theorem: statisical analysis by David M. Lane  Blackjack Applet: learn about odds in Blackjack 
Addition rule  6.3  
Cryptography Lab Application  Coding, Encryption 
Lab 6  Cryptography 

Combinations, relationship between combinations and permutations, Pascal's triangle, binomial theorem and coefficients  Parts of 6.4Combinations vs Permutations 6.6Just Pascal's Triangle 6.7Just Binomial Theorem 
 Pascal's Triangle Applet  Anagram generator: fun with sequences  Diamond 16 Puzzle  Permutation of patterns 
Application of counting and probability ideas  
Fitts Law Lab  Lab 7  Fitts Law Experiment  Log warmup exercises  Introduction to Fitts law  Our own Fitts Law Applet  A different Fitts Law Applet from Virginia Tech  A Linear Regression Applet from the University of Oregon to fit your data to different versions of Fitts Law  Entropy and H introduction from [broken] 

Functions I  7.1, 7.3  
Composition of Functions, Pigeonhole Principle  7.5, 7.4  
Strings, Languages, Recursion  5.1, pp. 239241 ;8.1  Links are currently down, but we hope to see them again:  Languages & grammars overview from Penn State  Regular expressions 
Finite State Automata  7.2  
Intro to graphs Introductory graph/tree lab 
11.1  Lab 8  Application of Graphs and Trees  Peter's Problem Applet  A problem closely related to trees 
Paths and circuits, Eulerian cycles and circuits, Hamiltonian circuits  11.2   Eulerian cycles  Intro from IST student Jim Keenan [broken]  Eulerian circuits and Konigsberg Problem, from National University of Ireland, Maynooth [broken]  More on Eulerian cycles, circuits, graphical view  Connection with networks, network reliability from University of Montreal  Connection with internet: Physics of the web from PhysicsWeb  Semantic networks: Knowledge representation  Use in search engines 
Trees, spanning trees, Breadth first & depth first searches. Traversals of binary trees 
11.5, Begin 11.6   Trees tutorial 
Spanning trees and graph optimization.  Finish 11.6   Kruskal's algorithm by IST student Ryan
McFadden [broken]  Spanning trees: algorithms from UC Irvine These applets from University of Patras, Greece demo both Prim's and Kruskal's minimum spanning tree algorithms:  Prim's algorithm simulation  Kruskal's algorithm simulation 
Flow graphs, applications  
The Future  
Other Possible Topics:   Finite state machines  Nardi article on social networks  BNF forms: syntactic descriptions of programming languages  Compression algorithms  Markov models analyze dependent random events  Task modeling languages  Predicate calculus for user modeling, a paper by Kobsa and Pohl, from the very useful CiteSeer site. 