ACT-R/AC Serial Subtraction Model Homepage


Research Team: Frank E. Ritter1, Karen S. Quigley3, Laura Cousino Klein2, Michael McNeese1,
Dirk Van Rooy1, Isaac Councill1, Marios N. Avraamides4, Michele McClellan Stine2,
and Isabella Rodriguez2

1 School of Information Science and Technology
Penn State, University Park, PA 16802

2 Department of Biobehavioral Health
Penn State, University  Park, PA 16802

3 Department of Psychiatry
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103
and
VA Medical Center
New Jersey Health Care System
East Orange, NJ 07018

4 Department of Psychology
Penn State, University Park, PA 16802

Project Overview

A next step in improving the fit of cognitive models to human performance is to include the effects of behavioral moderators within cognitive architectures. These effects can be included by modifying the knowledge in the model, modifying architectural parameters, and by modifying the mechanisms within the architecture itself. We provide an example overlay to the ACT-R architecture that illustrates the first two of these approaches, including the effects of anxiety realized as worry and task-appraisal. This overlay is applied to an ACT-R model that performs serial subtraction. The resulting behavior matches the existing available data on human behavior on pre-task appraisal and serial subtraction and makes new predictions.

Software Downloads

Documentation
 

Quicktime Movies

Model running with a threatened pre-task appraisal, with worry turned on.
File size 5.4 MB
 

Model running with challenged pre-task appraisal.
File Size 2.1 MB
 

Screenshot

Model running with challenged pre-task appraisal and worry turned on.

The above image presents the graphical interface of the model. The two main windows are the Control Panel and the Model Behavior windows. The Control Panel window contains several options for selecting the model's conditions, run control, and some advanced output options. This window facilitates the setting of the model's moderators.

The Model Behavior window displays the current result and whether it is correct or erroneous, as well as the declarative memory chunks that are being used to solve the problem. Summary statistics (number of attempts, number of errors, and task latency) are also displayed in this window.


References

Klein, L. C., Bennett, J. M., Whetzel, C. A., Granger, D. A., & Ritter, F. E. (2010). Caffeine and stress alter salivary α-Amylase levels in young men. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. 25. 359-367.

Ritter, F. E., Kase, S. E., Klein, L. C., Bennett, J., & Schoelles, M. (2009). Fitting a model to behavior tells us what changes cognitively when under stress and with caffeine.  In Proceedings of the Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures Symposium at the AAAI Fall Syposium.  Keynote presentation. Technical Report FS-09-01.  109-115.  AAAI Press: Menlo Park, CA.

Kase, S. E., Ritter, F. E., Schoelles, M. (2009). Serial subtraction errors revealed. In Proceedings of the 31th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1551-1556.  Cognitive Science Society: Austin, TX.

Kase, S. E., Ritter, F. E., & Schoelles, M. (2009). Caffeine’s effect on appraisal and mental arithmetic performance: A cognitive modeling approach tells us more. In Proceedings of ICCM - 2009- Ninth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. 39-46.  09-BRIMS-10. Manchester, England.

Kase, S., & Ritter, F. E. (2009). A high performance approach to model calibration and validation. In Proceedings of the 18th Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation.  39-46. 09-BRIMS-10.

Ritter, F. E.  (2009). Two cognitive modeling frontiers: Emotions and usability.  Journal of Japanese AI Research.  24(2). 241-249.

Kase, S., Ritter, F. E., & Scholles, M. (2008). From modeler-free individual data fitting to 3-D parametric prediction landscapes: A research expedition. In Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 1398-1403.  Cognitive Science Society: Austin, TX. [poster]

Klein, L.C., Bennett, J.M., Whetzel, C.A., & Ritter, F.E. (2008).  Daily caffeine use impacts neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to laboratory stress in healthy men. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, Baltimore, MD.  Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(3), A-58.

Kase, S. E., Ritter, F. E., & Schoelles, M. (2007). Using HPC and PGAs to optimize noisy computational models of cognition. In Proceedings of International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and System Sciences, and Engineering, CISSE 2007.
     [also citable as: Kase, S. E., Ritter, F. E., Schoelles, M. (2008). Using HPC and PGAs to optimize noisy computational models of cognition. In K. Elleithy (Ed.), Innovations and Advanced Techniques in Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering (pp. 477-482): Springer.]

Ritter, F. E., Schoelles, M., Klein, L. C., & Kase, S. E. (2007). Modeling the range of performance on the serial subtraction task. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Lewis, R. L., Polk, T. A., Laird, J. L., (eds.). 299-304. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis/Psychology Press.

Ritter, F. E., Van Rooy, D., St. Amant, R., & Simpson, K. (2006). Providing user models direct access to interfaces: An exploratory study of a simple interface with implications for HRI and HCI. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans. 36(3). 592-601.

Bennett, J. M., Whetzel, C. A., Ritter, F. E., Reifers, A., & Klein, L. C. (2006). Effects of caffeine and stress on cortisol and serial subtraction performance in young healthy men. Psychosomatic Medicine 68(1). A-62. [abstract of poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, Denver, CO.]

Klein, L. C., Whetzel, C. A., Bennett, J. M., Ritter, F. E., & Granger, D. A. (2006). Effects of caffeine and stress on salivary alpha-amylase in young men: A salivary biomarker of sympathetic activity. Psychosomatic Medicine 68(1). A-4. [abstract of talk presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, Denver, CO.] http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/misc/AbstractsForJournal062-9final.pdf

Whetzel, C. A., Ritter, F. E., & Klein, L. C. (2006). DHEA-S and cortisol responses to stress and caffeine in healthy young men: Is DHEA-S a reliable marker for stress? Psychosomatic Medicine 68(1). A-77. [abstract of poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, Denver, CO.]

Ritter, F. E., Reifers, A., Klein, L. C., Quigley, K., & Schoelles, M. (2004). Using cognitive modeling to study behavior moderators: Pre-task appraisal and anxiety. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 2121-2125. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Ritter, F. E., Avraamides, M., & Councill, I. G. (2002). An approach for accurately modeling the effects of behavior moderators. In Proceedings of the 11th Computer Generated Forces Conference. 29-40, 02-CGF-002. Orlando, FL: U. of Central Florida.



Applied Cognitive Science Lab
College of Information Science and Technology
Penn State University


Last modified 24 december 2010 -fer